- Last Updated on Wednesday, 21 November 2012 15:36
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) includes certain provisions on the communication of information on air emissions, i.e. emissions of gases contributing to the greenhouse effect either directly (CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6) or indirectly (NOx, CO, NMVOCs, SO2). The Kyoto Protocol, which was adopted on 11 December 1997 and came into force on 16 February 2005, lays down the commitments assigned to each signatory State. The Protocol was approved by France and the European Union on 31 May 2002.
Description of the inventory in the UNFCCC format
Each year since 1990, this national inventory report has provided data on emissions of the different substances contributing to the greenhouse effect and identified for monitoring for the purposes of:
- the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
- the 1st commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012).
The substances concerned are the six direct greenhouse gases making up the "Kyoto basket": carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), the two families of halogenated substances, i.e. hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and the four indirect greenhouse gases: SO2, NOx, NMVOCs and CO, for which the Convention invites the Parties to submit emissions reports.
Coverage and spatial resolution
The regions covered in France by the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol are:
- UNFCCC: mainland France and all overseas France areas,
- Kyoto Protocol: mainland France and all overseas France areas except the PTOM, i.e. those not included in the European Union (French Polynesia, New Caledonia, etc.).
Summary of main results
Energy is the main source of emissions in France according to the UNFCCC classification (71% of emissions expressed in CO2e excluding land use, land use change and forestry [LULUCF] in 2010), followed by agriculture (18% of GWP). Next are industrial processes (7.2%) and waste (4.2%). Compared to 1990, the contributions from the energy and waste sectors have increased while those from other sectors have dropped.
Significant trends in the 1990-2010 period include:
- a sustained increased in emissions from transport (+9%), although they have dropped since 2005 (-7%),
- a considerable drop in N2O emissions from the chemicals industry (-91%) and, to a lesser extent, from arable soils (-15%),
- a decline in fugitive emissions of CH4 following the closure of coal mines.
- a decline in the use of PFCs, but a very steep rise in HFC emissions (+1302% in terms of mass).
In the LULUCF sector, results in 2010 show a CO2 sink offsetting 6.1% of total GHG emissions expressed in CO2e.
Variations in emissions of direct greenhouse gases excluding LULUCF during the 1990-2010 period in France (mainland and overseas)