- Last Updated on Wednesday, 25 July 2012 14:17
Acidification, eutrophication, photochemical pollution
CO, NMVOC, NH3, NOx, SO2
CH4, CO2, N2O, HFCs
As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn
TSP, PM10, PM2.5, PM1.0
Persistent organic pollutants
HCB, PCB, PCDD/F, HAP (BaP, BbF, BkF, IndPy, BghiPe, BaA, BahA, FluorA)
Main sources of emissions
For each pollutant covered in the inventory, road transport accounts for more than 80% of total emissions in the transport sector as a whole except for CO (79%), NMVOC (71%), copper (73%), lead (25%) and HFCs (61%).
Although each transport mode needs to be analysed in detail, emissions from all transport modes taken together have declined overall in mainland France in the last 20 years, except for CO2, Cu and HCB. Most of the decline has been in road transport.
The "Grenelle" Acts
After wide-ranging debates and a series of round tables, the National Environmental Policy consultations (Grenelle de l'Environnement), launched in 2007, concluded with 268 commitments including 40 on transport. In 2008, several operational programming committees (COMOP) were set up to continue the work undertaken. Their conclusions set the legislative process in motion, resulting in the Grenelle 1 and 2 Acts.
The Programming Act (n° 2009-967) of 3 August 2009 on implementation of the National Environment Policy (known as the Grenelle 1 Act) sets out the target for greenhouse gas emission reductions in the transport sector in Article 10:
[...] The target is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector by 20%, to reduce them to their 1990 levels by 2020[£]. [...]
[£] : compared to 2005
In 2010, GHG emissions from all transport modes taken together had dropped by 5.6% compared to 2005, the baseline year. GHG emissions from road transport were down by 6%, while those from other transport modes rose by 2.8% (emissions from air transport rose by 14% while those from maritime and river transport dropped by more than 20% in each case).
Article 13 of the same Act sets out the target for unit emissions from private cars:
[...] The State's target is to reduce average emissions of carbon dioxide from all private cars in circulation from 176 grams of carbon dioxide per kilometre [in 2005] to 120g of carbon dioxide per kilometre by 2020 [...]. Proportionately similar objectives are to be achieved for light duty vehicles and motorcycles [...]
In 2010, unit emissions from all private cars stood at 164 g CO2/km, from light duty vehicles (LDVs) at 229 g CO2/km and from motorised two-wheelers at 83 g CO2/km.
(*) : Target calculated in the same proportions as for passenger cars, with 2005 taken as the baseline year.
(+) : CO2 emissions from the light duty vehicles (LDV) fleet with an energy balance on the total amount of fuel sold in mainland France.
The 2020 targets for LDVs and 2-wheelers (2W) were estimated by CITEPA by applying the same percentage reduction calculated for the passenger car fleet to emissions from the LDV and 2W fleets.
The indicators given here may differ slightly from those presented by the National Transport Accounts Commission (CCTN). The difference is accounted for by the scope used in the calculations. Applying international accounting rules for national inventories, the CITEPA's calculations are based on traffic figures with an energy balance on the total amount of fuel sold in France, while the CCTN takes all traffic on French territory into consideration, including traffic in transit.
At EU level, standards for road vehicle emission limit values (ELVs) were issued in 1970 and initially concerned only light vehicles (LV: passenger cars and light duty vehicles). Over the years, the ELVs were made more stringent and standards also applied for heavy duty vehicles (HDVs) and motorised 2-wheelers (2W).
Directives 70/220/CEE, 74/290/CEE, 77/102/CEE, 78/665/CEE, 83/351/CEE, 88/76/CEE, 88/436/CEE, 89/458/CEE, 89/491/CEE, 91/441/CEE, 93/59/CE, 94/12/CE, 96/44/CE, 96/69/CE, 98/69/CE, 98/77/CE, 99/102/CE, 2001/01/CE, 2001/100/CE, 2002/80/CE, 2003/76/CE, 2006/96/CE,
and regulation n° 595/2009.
For 2 wheelers
Ways to improve the situation
Biofuels contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions insofar as the CO2 released during their combustion is offset by the CO2 absorbed by the crops used to produce these biofuels during their growth (ie before its release during combustion) within the same year.
This mainly concerns road and rail transport and pleasure sailing.
- Catalytic converters enable NOx, CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to be reduced,
- FAPs (Diesel particulate filters) enable particulate matter emissions to be reduced. The Euro 5 emission standards for passenger cars and light duty vehicles require car manufacturers to equip new vehicles with such devices.
- Maritime transport: Annexe VI of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) was adopted in 1997 and entered into force on 19 May 2005. It was amended in 2008. This new Annex sets out requirements concerning NOx, SOx and VOC (emission limit values) and HCFCs (bans on emissions) (at sea and/or in ports), the sulphur content of marine fuels and des restrictions on incineration on board ships,
- Air transport: the EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS) now applies to this sector (since 1 January 2012) under Directive 2008/101/EC, amending Directive 2003/87/EC.