Context of NAMEA development

NAMEA (National Accounting Matrix with Environmental Accounts) is a tool developed by EUROSTAT (the European Commission's statistics service) to analyse relationships between the economy and the environment. At present, NAMEA mainly covers pollutant emissions into air and water and energy consumption. The Ministry of Environment's Data and Statistics Department (Service de la Donnée et des Etudes Statistiques or SDES), which is responsible for NAMEA in France, is now looking to develop NAMEA coding for waste production and water abstraction.

To compile the inventory of air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions to the NAMEA format, the SDES uses the matrices for atmospheric pollutant emissions by sector of economic activity produced by CITEPA.

NAMEA is one of the tools used for the European environmental accounting programme conducted under the aegis of EUROSTAT and governed by EU Regulation n° 691/2011 of 6 July 2011.


Description of the NAMEA inventory

NAMEA is a tool that helps to understand the links between production activities and environmental pressures, and thus to identify the respective contributions of the different economic agents to the environmental problems under consideration. It is therefore used both nationally and internationally as a decision-support tool. It is able to cross-link macro-economic indicators (gross national product, net savings, exports, etc.) with environment data.

The atmospheric emissions in the inventory are listed by economic sectors represented by a NAMEA code (equivalent to NACE, the European Commission's statistical classification of economic activities in the EU), which allows indicators to be established that link emissions produced to activity volumes in each economic branch. These indicators therefore generate information on the eco-efficiency of different branches of activity and can be used to monitor trends and make comparisons between countries.


Pollutants concerned

The pollutants in the inventory are: sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5).


Methodology applied

The methodology used to develop the NAMEA air emissions matrices is relatively simple. Drawing on its experience with reporting formats (SECTEN, UNFCCC, UNECE, etc.) for the national inventory, CITEPA has produced an inventory of air emissions by SNAP codes (Selective Nomenclature for Air Pollution). This involves allocating estimated emissions per SNAP code to the different NAMEA codes via so-called "allocation ratios". These allocation ratios can be:

    • simple: all emissions for a given SNAP code are allocated to a given NAMEA code (e.g. centralised electricity production);
    • complex: emissions for a given SNAP code are allocated to several different NAMEA codes (e.g. road transport, where emissions are allocated to the different activity sectors of the companies transporting the goods).


Content of the report

The report written by the CITEPA on the inventory of atmospheric pollutant emissions in the NAMEA format describes the different methodologies applied to estimate the different allocation ratios. It describes the different NAMEA codes that concern each SNAP code, as well as the data and assumptions used. Also provided in the report (in the Annex) are the results for emissions by NAMEA code, the complex allocation ratios used and a SNAP-NAMEA equivalence table. This report is done for the SDES and is not public.


The residence principle

NAMEA differs from other inventory reports in the scope used, which is based on the residence principle. Unlike the territorial approach used for other inventories (where only emissions occurring in a given country are estimated), the NAMEA approach is based on "residence", meaning that emissions generated by the residents of a country are counted whether they occur in that country or in another country. For example, the emissions and consumption of a vehicle belonging to a non-resident driving in French territory are not counted in the NAMEA inventory for mainland France. On the other hand, a vehicle driven outside France but belonging to a resident in France will be included in the NAMEA inventory for France. It should be noted that this residence-based approach only affects the transport sectors.


Examples of results

In 2015, about 89% of emissions from light 4-wheeled vehicles (referred to collectively as "private cars") were from private and not professional journeys (NAMEA 0021). This is why the sharp drop in the sulphur content of fuel that occurred in 1997 and 2005 (following the application of the EU directives on the sulphur content of fuel) is reflected as a sharp decline in SO2 emissions associated with private car journeys (NAMEA code 0021) in 1997 and 2005.

Mine closures from 1990 to 2004, when the last coal mine was closed down, brought a significant drop in CH4 and dust emissions from the coal and lignite extraction sectors (NAMEA code 05).

From 1995 to 1998, improvements to electrical equipment brought a substantial drop in SF6 emissions from the power production sector (NAMEA code 35.1).

In 2001, the production of "air-cushion" sports footwear containing SF6 ceased, bringing a decline in SF6 emissions attributed to private individuals (NAMEA code 0012).

The advent of lead-free petrol in 2000 significantly reduced lead emissions from private car journeys (NAMEA codes 0021 and 0022).

The NAMEA report also includes a wide range of other results.

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