< Nitrogen trifluoride - NF3 Carbon dioxide - CO2 >

Associated topic: greenhouse effect

Emissions monitoring period: since 1990

Data source: CITEPA / SECTEN format - April 2017


Origin of the indicator

The GWP indicator has been developed to group into a single figure the combined effect of all substances accentuating the greenhouse effect.

By convention, the indicator only covers direct greenhouse gases at present, and particularly those covered by the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, SF6 and NF3.

The Global Warming Potential is expressed in terms of "CO2 equivalent" (written as CO2e).

By definition, the greenhouse effect attributed to CO2 is established as 1, and the greenhouse effect of all the other substances is established in relation to CO2. This way of expressing GWP requires care, as the information may be relative either to the indicator or to CO2 only.

The indicator is calculated on the basis of a 100-year time horizon in order to cover the lifetimes of the different substances in the atmosphere.

For the second period of the Kyoto Protocol (2013-2020), the GWP values currently used in the context of CITEPA's inventories are those from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)'s fourth assessment report (AR4) published in 2007.

In accordance with the decisions made to date by the Conference of the Parties, the GWP for these different gases as defined by the IPCC are those defined in 2007:

    • CO2 = 1
    • CH4 = 25
    • N2O = 298
    • HFCs = variable depending on the molecules and years under consideration
    • PFCs = variable depending on the molecules and years under consideration
    • SF6 = 22 800
    • NF3 = 17 200

The contributions of the different gases covered by this indicator are described below. They differ widely, with CO2 making the largest contribution by far (about two thirds).

 Graph PRG camembert 17

Source CITEPA / SECTEN format – April 2017


Classification of the sub-sectors* with the highest emission levels (excluding Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry or LULUCF) in 2015

Classification Sub-sectors Share of sub-sector in total national emissions in mainland France
1 Diesel-fuelled passenger cars 12%
2 Residential sector 12%
3 Livestock 9.5%
4 Crops 8.0%
5 Tertiary sector 7.6%
6 Diesel-fuelled heavy-duty vehicles (including buses and coaches) 6.3%
7 Diesel-fuelled light-duty vehicles 5.3%

*: one sector (of six altogether: energy transformation, manufacturing industry, residential/tertiary, agriculture/forestry, road and other transport) is broken down into sub-sectors.


Emissions and trends

  Including LULUCF Excluding LULUCF
Minimum observed: 397 Mt CO2e in 2014 441 Mt CO2e in 2014
Maximum observed: 538 Mt CO2e in 1991 567 Mt CO2e in 1991
Emissions in 2015: 405 Mt CO2e 445 Mt CO2e
Trends 2015/1990: -20.8% -17.7%
Trends 2015/maximum: -24.7% -24.5%
Trends 2015/minimum: +1.9% +0.8%

Measurement unit: Mt CO2e (mégatonne CO2 equivalent)
N.B. : includes emissions from combustion and from processes.
Source CITEPA / SECTEN format – April 2017


Graph PRG 17

Graph Legende avec UTCATF

Source CITEPA / SECTEN format – April 2017

Tab PRG 17

(a) Net emissions in the sector excluding CO2 emissions from renewable energy, especially biomass.
(b) CO2 from biomass combustion, not including in net CO2 emissions of the sector.
(*) Following UNFCCC definitions: emissions classified "except total" are not included, i.e. emissions from international waterway, maritime and air transport and emissions not from human sources.
(**) Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry
(e) preliminary estimate



In 2015, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of emissions from mainland France was estimated at 405 Mt CO2e including LULUCF, and 445 Mt CO2e excluding LULUCF.

All sectors contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which were... (to read more, consult the SECTEN report online via your login and password)

Data source: CITEPA / SECTEN format - April 2017