This section describes a selection of recent CITEPA references. Many other references are available: please contact CITEPA for more information.



Emissions inventories

As well as its responsibility for part of the French National Air Emissions Inventories and Audits System (SNIEBA), on behalf of the Environment Ministry, CITEPA carries out emissions inventories at different sectoral, regional and local levels, including at high spatial resolution. Recent references are given below.

Coordination Centre for Local Area Inventories (PCIT)

Methodological study by a coordination and facilitation group involving CITEPA, INERIS and the National Federation of Approved Air Quality Monitoring Associations (AASQA), based on several technical workshops mainly involving INERIS, CITEPA, the AASQA for Alsace (ASPA) and the Paris region (AIRPARIF), and conducted with Environment Ministry funding in 2011 and 2012.

Summary of the study

The Coordination Centre for Local Area Inventories was established to a) put forward methodological guidelines for inventories, in any given local area in France, of direct air pollutant and greenhouse gases emissions in urban areas of more than 50 000 inhabitants where emissions are, or are likely to be, in excess of limit air quality values, and b) to assess all methodological changes required for local emissions inventories to meet air quality assessment requirements.

The centre is piloted by the Environment Ministry's Directorate General for Energy and Climate (DGEC), with INERIS managing the secretariat and CITEPA and the ATMO federation as joint facilitators. The centre produces its studies through six workshops:

    • on industry, piloted by CITEPA,
    • on waste (including incineration), piloted by CITEPA,
    • on road transport, piloted by AIRPARIF,
    • on other transport modes, piloted by AIRPARIF,
    • on the residential/tertiary sector, piloted by the AASQA for Alsace (ASPA),
    • on agriculture/sylviculture, piloted by CITEPA.

These technical workshops have produced various sectoral chapters in the methodology guide based on a review of current methodologies and recommending the most relevant methods, given available data, with parallel analyses of their consistency with the national inventory.

To be published in 2012


Inventories of greenhouse gas and air pollutant emissions in New Caledonia

Study produced for New Caledonia's Directorate for Industry, Mining and Energy (DIMENC) and the local delegation of the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), from 2009 to 2012.

Summary of the study

The inventory of direct greenhouse gas (GHG) and air pollutant emissions in New Caledonia was produced by CITEPA, applying rules and good practice in compliance with requirements laid down by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP).

New Caledonia's particular features, such as mining and nickel production or its natural heritage, are taken into account and highlighted through a specific GHG reporting format based on the French Climate Plan and adapted for analyses of local trends and issues.

CITEPA has produced emissions estimations for the last few years in both formats as well as projections for 2020.

As well as the inventories themselves, CITEPA provided tools and training for local teams responsible for updating the inventories compiled. A final audit was organised to ensure that the necessary competences had been transferred and well understood.

Study not available to the public.


Spatialised emissions inventory for Tunisia

Study produced by CITEPA with I2E Tunisia and ARIA Technologies, for Tunisia's National Environment Agency (ANPE) in 2009-2011.

Summary of the study

This study produced a national spatialised emissions inventory, which estimates emissions of SO2, NOX, CO, CO2, CH4, NMVOC, NH3, HF, TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, to 1 km resolution in coastal areas and monitored at hourly intervals. The framework thus provided now supports a system for air quality modelling across Tunisia as a whole. Within the consortium, CITEPA handled the industrial sources (database of about 500 point sources), maritime and rail transport and the residential and tertiary sectors. The different modules were delivered during a training session for ANPE agents in Tunis, in the spring of 2011.

Study not available to the public.


Inventory of emissions for La Reunion island

Study conducted by CITEPA for the La Reunion District Council (Conseil Général) in 2009.

Summary of the study

A spatialised inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 and 2006 produced by CITEPA. CITEPA also established a system for inventory management and updating by a local team. At the end of the first emissions inventory update by the local team, an audit was organised to ensure that the necessary competences had been transferred and well understood.

Inventaire National Spatialisé (INS)

Studies carried out from 2006 to 2010 by a CITEPA/INERIS consortium on request from the French Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

The national spatialised inventory project was initiated in 2005 to produce emissions data on an hourly basis and 1 km resolution for about 40 substances and for several hundred speciated substances. Its purpose is to deliver input for the national air emissions modelling system (PREV'AIR) hosted by INERIS, and to provide detailed information for public service agents on characterisation of these emissions across the whole of France. In 2012, a new online portal will enable the public to consult annual emissions data by sectors of activity and for all the substances covered, to a 10 x 10 km2 resolution. The development of the National Spatialised Inventory (INS) project required the involvement of about hundred experts in their respective fields, upstream from the project's technical phase. CITEPA was responsible for piloting and coordinating the project, and for the treatment of a large proportion of fixed sources of emissions from the energy industry, industrial processes and air transport.

Forward studies and emissions scenarios

Scenarios for 2020-2030; estimations of GHG and air pollutant emissions (OPTINEC IV)

Studies conducted in 2010- 2011 by a CITEPA/ENERDATA consortium with contributions from CEP Armines, Energies Demain and IFP Energies Nouvelles on request from the Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

The Ministry of the Environment's Directorate-General for Energy and Climate (DGEC) launched a study in 2010 to develop forward Energy-Climate-Air scenarios for 2020 and 2030. ENERDATA developed the energy scenarios and CITEPA contributed most of the material for estimating GHG and air pollutant emissions, including modelling results on GHG and air pollutant emissions in accordance with the national inventory methodologies. The French Petroleum and New Energy Institute (Institut Français du Pétrole Energies Nouvelles) modelled petroleum supplies and refining, the Paris Armines Forward Studies Centre modelled trends in emissions of refrigerating fluids and the Energies Demain consultancy compared the different modelling methodologies used.

This is the first simulation exercise integrating all three components – energy, climate and air – in a forward analysis. The aim was to supply forward studies of energy consumption, GHG emissions and air pollution to 2020 and 2030, through four scenarios that include the impacts of the economic crisis on production, consumption, etc.

Energy and GHG emission components

These components of the study were used by the Environment Ministry to produce:

    • the National Energy Efficiency Action Plan (NEEAP), to be submitted by France to the European Commission by 30 June 2011 to comply with Directive 2006/32/EC on energy efficiency,
    • the report on national GHG emission projections to be submitted by France to the European Commission by 15 March 2011 to comply with Decision 280/2004/EC (on the EU GHG monitoring mechanism),
    • the updated version of the French Climate Plan.

Component on air emissions (SO2, NOx, PM2.5, NH3, NMVOCs)

The work for this component, known as OPTINEC IV, produced estimations of air pollutants up to 2020 and 2030 based on current legislation (at the time of completion of the study), using a scenario in which regulations are in the process of implementation or examination. The OPTINEC IV estimations were used by the Environment Ministry to support its negotiations on appropriate emissions ceilings for 2020.

Studies of this type were also carried out in 2009 (OPTINEC III), 2007 (OPTINEC II) and 2001 (OPTINEC 1).

OPTINEC IV is downloadable free of charge.

Building greenhouse gas emission scenarios (ScéGES)

Studies conducted by a consortium involving CITEPA, CEP Armines and Energies Demain, on request from the Ministry of the Environment, beginning in 2007 and continuing until 2012 to improve the tool developed.

Summary of the study

To comply with France's national and international climate commitments, the DGEC commissioned the development of a computer software tool to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions, called "ScéGES" (Scénarisation des émissions de Gaz à Effet de Serre). This tool is used to assess the impact of the main policies and measures planned or already implemented to reduce GHG emissions. The model includes modules for agriculture, buildings (residential/tertiary), electricity production, fluorinated gases, manufacturing industries, transport and waste treatment.

The model is regularly upgraded and capable of calculating the cost of measures.

ScéGES tool not available to the public.

Assessment of the biomass fuel sector's contribution to national air pollution emissions and trends

Study produced by CITEPA and Energies Demain in 2009 on request from the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME).

Summary of the study

At a time when biomass fuel development appears be one of the solutions to reach the targets set by the French public authorities for action on global warming, questions are being raised on the impact of its increasing use on air quality. To provide answers to these questions, ADEME initiated a study to determine the technical and economic conditions of biomass fuel development that would ensure compliance with both air quality standards and French commitments on global warming. CITEPA carried out in-depth studies on the emission levels and energy performance of individual wood burning appliances (built-in and free-standing stoves, cookers, open fireplaces and boilers) and central heating boilers for blocks of flats. Using this information, a model was developed by Energies Demain to calculate projections of the number of appliances in use, consumption and emissions from combustion in the residential, tertiary, industrial and district heating sectors. The model results show emissions by sector and by type of energy (biomass and other fuels), and provide estimations up to 2050 according to different scenarios for the development of the fuelwood sector. It also calculates the estimated costs of fitting smoke treatment systems.

The document can be downloaded free of charge: Evaluation prospective 2020-2050 de la contribution du secteur biomasse énergie aux émissions nationales de polluants atmosphériques

Techno-economic studies

Studies on different sectors of activity and topics relating to knowledge on emissions, assessments of compliance with regulations, identification of reduction measures, cost calculations, etc. The following examples refer to the most recent studies conducted and are not exhaustive.

Non-fuel uses of natural gas

Study produced in 2011 by CITEPA on request from the French Environment Ministry's Monitoring and Statistics Department (SOeS).

Summary of the study

As the consumption of natural gas for purposes other than fuel is not easily identified in France, the SOeS commissioned a study from CITEPA on about a dozen of the industrial sites that consume the most natural gas as a raw material, in order to draw up an accurate picture of this type of gas consumption. This study has also improved calculations of the contribution of non-energy natural gas consumption in France to the energy balance, which are supporting more accurate assessments of greenhouse gas emissions.

Study not available to the public.

Available reduction techniques for combustion facilities of less than 50 MWth

Study produced in 2010/2011 by CITEPA on request from the French Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

This study was initiated by the Environment Ministry with a view to reforming the Ministerial Orders on combustion plants with a rated thermal input of less than 50 MW (Ministerial Orders of 1997 and reduction measures required to comply with very strict emission ceilings), in order to take ongoing improvements in combustion equipment into account. The study involved identifying existing and emerging primary and secondary emission reduction techniques and defining, for each technique:

    • average emission levels per pollutant,
    • the feasibility and technical difficulties involved in their implementation and operation, based on feedback from professionals in particular,
    • costs of implementation and operation, in proportion to thermal input and the quantities of pollutant emissions reduced (comparison between techniques),
    • adverse side effects (e.g. generation of waste, energy consumption, etc.).

The study reviewed regulatory limit values in other countries (Germany, Switzerland, California, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Netherlands) and the reduction techniques applied with their performance in terms of compliance with the regulations (where available).

An assessment was also made of the effects of implementing Best Available Techniques (BAT) for reducing emissions flows, in comparison with existing facilities.

Study not available to the public.

Progress towards implementation of Directive 1999/13/EC in France from 2007 to 2010

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 on request from the French Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

In order to monitor the application of Directive 1999/13/EC on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from certain industrial sectors, the European Commission requires Member States to complete a questionnaire for each three-year period. The French Environment Ministry was required to supply its answers to the questionnaire for the third period (2005-2008) in 2011. CITEPA carried out the following tasks:

    • updating the linking of French facilities listed for environmental protection purposes (ICPE) with the activities listed in the EU Directive, concerning the manufacture of pharmaceuticals in particular,
    • identifying and compiling the data on facilities covered by the Directive, their VOC emissions and their compliance during the period,
    • comparison with the responses to the previous questionnaire (2005-2007) and explanations of any changes.

A similar study was produced in 2008 for the Environment Ministry.

Study not available to the public.

Obstacles to solvent substitution in some industries

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 on request from the ADEME.

Summary of the study

This study identifies the sectors in France that are still using solvents with no substitutes, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic (CMR) VOCs and in what quantities, and highlights existing VOC substitution techniques and the techno-economic obstacles limiting their use in France, by type of activity and type of process.

This study was conducted in response to the ADEME's aim of gaining a better understanding of the remaining obstacles to solvent substitution. It provides a techno-economic analysis of these obstacles to substitution in the industrial sectors covered by Directive 1999/13/EC, by type of process.

The study provided the basis for a guide now being written by the ADEME on VOCs and their reduction, for which the CITEPA has agreed to revise the provisional final version.

The study can be downloaded free of charge: Etude sur les freins à la substitution des composés organiques volatils

Guide for alfalfa drying plants

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 for the trade federation COOP de France Déshydratation.

Summary of the study

The study aimed to a) produce a summary of the situation of fodder drying facilities in relation to certain regulatory provisions on air pollution, in particular the Ministerial Orders of 2 February 1998 and 31 January 2008, and b) provide a technical guide identifying the different methods of quantifying annual flows of the different pollutants listed in the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR), by type of fuel and type of product used in these facilities.

The various documents and their summaries are intended for members of the federation but also for Government departments to support discussions with the profession.

Study not available to the public.

Use of best available techniques (BAT) in large combustion plants (LCPs)

Study produced by CITEPA on request from the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME), in 2009.

Summary of the study

On request from the Environment Ministry, ADEME was involved in revising some of the BREF (BAT REFerence documents), in particular regarding large combustion plants (> 50 MWth), and requested a study from CITEPA to identify these combustion plants in France and their techniques for reducing air pollutant emissions (NOx, SO2, dust).

This inventory provided the foundations for a database on combustion plants listed as operating in 2008, with a fact sheet on each describing:

    • equipment: boilers, motors, turbines and CHP units > 50 MWth,
    • types of fuel used: solid (including biomass), liquid and gas,
    • primary and secondary measures implemented to reduce emissions of NOx, SO2 and dust,
    • emission levels before and after reducing emissions of NOx, SO2 and dust,
    • economic data (investments and operating costs of the reduction techniques used).

The document can be downloaded free of charge: Etude sur les unités de combustion supérieures à 50 MWth et leurs techniques de réduction des émissions de NOx, SO2 et poussières

Production of asphalt concrete for road surfacing

Study produced by CITEPA in 2011-2012 for the Federation of French Road Industry Unions (USIRF).

Summary of the study

This study aimed to identify the situation of stationary hot-mix asphalt concrete plants requiring an operating permit under French legislation on facilities listed for environmental protection purposes (ICPE) in relation to air pollution regulations. It analyses the conditions applying under the Ministerial Order of 2 February 1998 (as amended) and the Ministerial Order of 31 January 2008 (as amended) on emissions reporting by listed facilities requiring an operating permit. Several fuels were analysed separately: heavy fuel oil, domestic heating oil and natural gas.

All of the substances covered by the two Orders are analysed in the report, which includes a fact sheet for each substance describing each of the relevant regulatory aspects.

Study not available to the public.

Best Available Techniques (BAT) for alfalfa drying facilities

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 for COOP France Déshydratation.

Summary of the study

The Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) requires the Regional Offices for the Environment, Spatial Planning and Housing (DREAL) to include the emission limit values prescribed by the local authorities delivering permits in its BAT associated emission levels (AELs). These BAT AELs are now set out in a document called "BAT Conclusions". Dried alfalfa production is covered by the IED, and COOP de France Déshydratation therefore requested a document describing BATs for this sector, which has particular characteristics and is not well represented in the applicable BREF.

The document produced by CITEPA is based on in-depth inspections of four drying plants using different production processes, a bibliographic search and data from experts. It describes BATs for air pollution and energy efficiency. BATs can be production processes, techniques for reducing emissions of pollutants in flue gases and any operating methods and production processes capable of limiting emissions and improving energy efficiency.

Study not available to the public.

Review of current techniques used in French industry to reduce emissions of particulate matter (PM) in 2006

Study conducted in 2008 by CITEPA on request from the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME).

Summary of the study

A detailed review of the situation in France in 2006 as regards dust extraction equipment used in French industry. Among the different extraction techniques covered, the use of BATs is highlighted in particular. For each industrial sector, the study determines the rate of BAT use and the levels of performance achieved by their implementation.

Study not available to the public.

NMVOC emissions from service stations

Study produced by CITEPA and ECS Bureau Veritas in 2007, on request from the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME).

Summary of the study

This CITEPA study reviews compliance in service stations with regulatory stages I and II for VOC emissions during the filling of fuel tanks, available reduction techniques, regulations adopted in other countries, the remaining potential for reduction measures and their costs. A measurement campaign was organised to estimate emissions from filling fuel tanks in service stations (stage 1B) and from filling vehicle tanks (stage 2), with and without the use of available reduction techniques, using an analysis method adapted from American methods to determine fugitive emissions in oil refineries. This study provided the basis for the Environment Ministry's definition of the 2010 Ministerial Orders on service stations.

The document can be downloaded free of charge: Emissions de COVNM issues des stations-service

Feasibility study for reducing pentane emissions during polystyrene manufacture

Study produced by CITEPA in 2007 in collaboration with INERIS, on request from the National Expanded Plastics Union (SNPA).

Summary of the study

Feasibility study on treating VOC emissions from polystyrene expansion processes in the manufacture of expandable polystyrene.

Study not available to the public.

Studies on indirect GHG emissions, carbon audits (bilan carbone®), GHG audits, domestic projects and assessments of reporting

Indirect emissions from the Principality of Monaco

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 for Monaco's Environment Directorate.

Summary of the study

A study on indirect GHG emissions from the Principality of Monaco, i.e. outside its borders, was carried out by CITEPA. This study completes the inventory of direct GHG emissions, for which CITEPA provided assistance. Indirect GHG emissions from the Principality of Monaco are much higher than its direct emissions, as Monaco extends over only 2 km2. This study identified the specific activities responsible for indirect emissions, and their relative importance.

Studies not available to the public.

Indirect greenhouse gas emissions from Burgundy

Study produced by CITEPA in 2009 for Alterre Bourgogne.

Summary of the study

Emissions that cannot be ascribed to a specific geographic, legal or sectoral area, etc. are described as "indirect emissions". This study estimated both indirect and direct emissions, which required an exact identification, district by district, of all production chains for all types of products, the origin of these products, etc.

Study not available to the public.

Carbon audits (Bilan Carbone®) and GHG emissions audits (BEGES)

Audits conducted by CITEPA from 2008 to 2012 for clients including Placoplatre, Eurocoustic, Axa, Saint-Gobain Isover, Mersen, the Senate, the French employers' federation (MEDEF) and IMD.

Summary of the study

Quantification of direct and indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the sites concerned, often involving a multi-site approach. The studies cover Scope 1 and 2 in all cases and may cover Scope 3 on request from the client. An action plan is proposed. CITEPA conducts audits of this type in accordance with current regulations, using the Bilan Carbone® tool. GHG audits are conducted to comply with the new regulatory provisions, replacing the previous voluntary auditing process.

Studies not available to the public.

Kyoto Protocol – domestic projects

Studies conducted by CITEPA for Air Liquide, EcoAct, Danone, Comhurex, Rhodia, Association Nord-Est, Lille Urban Area Authority, etc. from 2007 to 2012.

Summary of the study

CITEPA provides its technical expertise to support domestic projects developed by different clients, in particular for the establishment of reference methods. During this process, CITEPA provides assistance to the project developer on critical points such as: eligible scope, methods for calculating emissions, reference sources, inclusion of potential emission reductions in the national emissions inventory and other criteria that may apply (e.g. "additionality"). These projects cover a wide range of topic areas, including:

    • electric vehicle fleets,
    • reduction of SF6 leakage during the manufacture of electrical equipment,
    • projects for the destruction of nitrous oxide during its production, for application in existing facilities,
    • thermal oxidation of certain greenhouse gases in flue gases released from industrial facilities,
    • specific methodology for application in projects producing methane from livestock excretion,
    • car-pooling,
    • population behavioural patterns.

Studies not available to the public.

Implementation of the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU-ETS), 2005 to 2008

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 on request from the French Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

The aim of this study was to draw up a report on four years' operation of the EU-ETS in France (2005-2008) and to learn lessons with a view to improvements. In order to draw up the review and compare compliance practices with those set out in the regulations (role of the different stakeholders, reporting, verification, deadlines, etc.), CITEPA analysed practices on the basis of a) questionnaires completed by a large number of players and b) annual emissions reports.

The report summarises feedback from the experience acquired. CITEPA also puts forward possibilities for improving the system based on the data collected from all stakeholders, whenever appropriate.

Study not available to the public.

Solvent Management Plans and assistance/advice for reducing VOC emissions in industrial facilities

Studies conducted by CITEPA for clients including Alcoa, Knauf, Renault Trucks, PSA, ARD Solliance, Bourbon Plastiques, Eternit, Kohler, La Française de Mécanique, etc.

Summary of the study

CITEPA conducts studies for the implementation of Solvent Management Plans, audits of these plans and preparatory studies for the introduction of VOC emission reduction policies in industrial facilities using solvents. These services are tailored to the needs of each client (solvent users). CITEPA has produced some 50 studies of this type.

Studies not available to the public.

Studies conducted on the transport sector

Energy, Environment and Transport Monitoring Unit (Observatoire Energie Environnement Transports - OEET)

Studies conducted for the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) since 2010.

Summary of the study

In order to meet commitments initiated by the National Environmental Policy Consultations, under Heading 13 on the creation of a transport monitoring unit involving all stakeholders to estimate emissions in accordance with a common methodology, and in order to introduce compulsory displaying of greenhouse gas emissions generated by transport services, the OEET was created to work within the ADEME with technical support from CITEPA, the French Environment Ministry (MEDDE/CGDD/SOeS) and SETRA.

The results, methods and products etc. provided by the OEET studies constitute original material from a sector that already produces substantial results, methods, tools and specific rules, in particular to meet commitments under international Conventions (UNFCCC, UNECE, Kyoto and Gothenburg Protocols, NEC Directive, etc.) and other national or international requirements (GHG audits, life cycle analyses, eco-comparisons, CEN and ISO standards, etc.). CITEPA's involvement in the OEET from the outset arose from the need to draw on a wide range of competences to conduct the necessary studies. CITEPA is a member of the Executive Board and participates in the three currently operational technical committees (on goods transport, passenger transport and infrastructure).

The OEET website is under construction.

Energy and environment study for harbour operations

Study conducted in 2010 by a consortium involving CITEPA, AJI Europe, MLTC and EFEC Consultants for the French Environment Ministry (MEDDE /DGIT).

Summary of the study

To work towards a priority Government objective following the National Environmental Policy Consultations, i.e. to strengthen know-how to assess the environmental footprint of services, CITEPA, in partnership with AJI Europe, MLTC and EFEC Consultants, drew up an inventory of all sources of CO2, SOX, NOX and PM emissions released by commercial shipping during harbour operations.

CITEPA was involved in the production of a tool to assess energy consumption and GHG and air pollutant emissions that can be applied to all harbour situations and covers emissions from each main logistical component of maritime transport. CITEPA also proposed an additional module for estimations of non-fuel particulate matter during harbour operations. An assessment was produced of energy consumption and emissions, including non-fuel emissions, from France's seven major maritime ports.

Study not available to the public.

Update of the "TARMAAC" tool for estimating air transport emissions

Study produced by CITEPA in 2010 for the French Environment Ministry (MEDDE/DGAC).

Summary of the study

In collaboration with the Environment Ministry's Directorate General for Civil Aviation (DGAC), a detailed method was developed to calculate emissions from air transport, using data on actual air traffic. This tool, developed to calculate consumption and emissions in the sector, is used as a basis for inventories of national emissions and for specific DGAC purposes (e.g. the DGAC CO2 calculator).

These studies allow the DGAC to address new requirements such as the need to introduce and cover:

    • data on actual consumption when available,
    • aircraft/engine combinations that are specific to a airport or airline,
    • simulations of emissions from fictitious flights or flights that do not take off or land in France.

These functional advances in the TARMAAC tool (version II) will have an impact on national emissions inventories as from 2012, when integration of aviation into the EU-ETS began.

Study not available to the public.

Audits of emissions inventories in other countries and building their capacities to introduce the necessary organisational structure to apply effective policies to control pollution and GHG emissions

Training for experts from seven Congo Basin countries in drawing up GHG emissions inventories

Study conducted by CITEPA and ONF International in 2009 on request from the Central Africa Forests Commission (COMIFAC) and the French Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

CITEPA, with ONF International, provided training on GHG emissions inventories for experts from seven Congo Basin countries (Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Central African Republic, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and Sao Tomé & Principe).

Study not available to the public.


Study produced by CITEPA and ONF International in 2010/2011 on request from the the Climate Council of the Gabon Presidency.

Summary of the study

A study on transferring competences for the production of national GHG inventories and national communications, as required under the UNFCCC. CITEPA carried out two missions in Gabon. Its first review of Gabon's GHG emissions inventory, during the first mission in 2010, formulated recommendations for production of these inventories. The second mission in 2011 aimed to verify the implementation of these recommendations. During these two missions, two CITEPA engineers assisted in training experts in the different sectors to ensure that GHG emissions inventories are as accurate and exhaustive as possible. These missions laid the foundations for a permanent national inventory team in Gabon.

Study not available to the public.

Review of GHG emissions inventories in the Democratic Republic of Congo, DRC

Study conducted by CITEPA and ONF International in 2012 on request from the French Development Agency (AFD).

Summary of the study

The study mission took place in early 2012 on request from the French Development Agency (AFD), with a view to producing a Climate Plan for the DRC. CITEPA's mission was to review the national GHG emissions inventory. Although this was a voluntary review, it was conducted in accordance with the same principles as the international UNFCCC reviews.

Two CITEPA engineers with UNFCCC accreditation verified the inventory's compliance with UN specifications. During the mission, the CITEPA team members took part in the launch of the 3rd DRC national communication (as required under the UNFCCC) and also provided training for national experts on the development of GHG inventories. This CITEPA study mission ended with the formulation of conclusions and recommendations for the Democratic Republic of Congo.

Study not available to the public.

Review of emissions inventories in EU Member States under EC Decision n°406/2009

Study conducted in 2012 by a consortium of consultants led by the Austrian Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt), on request from the European Commission.

Summary of the study

For the purposes of EU Decision n°406/2009/EC on the efforts assigned to each Member State to reduce their GHG emissions between 2013 and 2020, a special review of GHG inventories was organised in 2012 by the European Commission in order to set emission ceilings from 2013 to 2020 for each Member State. Two CITEPA experts (on waste and agriculture) were involved in this assessment covering the 27 Member States, working with two auditing teams (24 auditors) coordinated by the Austrian Environment Agency.

Study not available to the public.


Studies on the agriculture and forestry sector

Developing calculation methods for reporting livestock farming emissions of ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and particulate matter (PM10)

Study conducted with ITAVI and IFIP for the French Environment Ministry (MEDDE/DGPR) in 2011-2012.

Summary of the study

The aim of this current project is to bring substantial improvements to the reporting process for ammonia emissions in particular, based on the most recent inventory data available.

Exploratory study to estimate GHG flows in farmland covered by Article 3.4 for the second Kyoto Protocol commitment period

Study conducted by CITEPA in 2012 for the French Environment Ministry (MEDDE/DGEC).

Summary of the study

This study provides an initial estimation of greenhouse gas (GHG) flows in crops and grasslands during the period from 1990 to 2020 for emissions accounting purposes under Article 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol for the second commitment period. The difficulty involved in this study lies in making projections of fertilisation and tillage based on partial statistical data, while complying with accounting rules for inventories.

Study not available to the public.

Carbon content of soils

Study produced by CITEPA for the French Agriculture Ministry (MAAF/DGPAAT) in 2010-2011.

Summary of the study

Soils and carbon they contain have become an important issue. Soils across the Earth's surface make up a larger carbon pool than the Earth's atmosphere and biomass combined. They are an important link in the carbon cycle and, depending on situations, they can generate significant emissions or form carbon sinks. This study identified ways of improving monitoring of carbon flows in soils at national level, by analysing available data and existing accounting rules and through analysis of the systems used in other countries.

Study not available to the public.

Update of the inventory system for livestock farming emissions

Study produced by CITEPA in 2011 on request from the French Environment Ministry.

Summary of the study

To produce inventories of emissions from livestock farming, CITEPA has developed a new system for estimating air pollutant emissions, called PACRETE. This is based on an integrated approach to estimations of livestock emissions at regional level. It incorporates nitrogen excretion from the different kinds of livestock, a mass flow approach for nitrogen, new emission factors for NH3 and particulate matter and new data on livestock farming practices.

CITEPA is conducting this study with numerous partners, including technical institutes (IDELE, IFIP, ITAVI, ARVALIS, ITB, CETIOM, UNIP, UNIFA, etc.), research institutes (INRA, CEMAGREF, etc.) and the French Agriculture and Environment Ministries.

Projections of greenhouse gas emissions and absorption in the Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF) sector by 2020 in France

Study produced for the French Agriculture Ministry (MAAF/DGPAAT) in 2010-2011 by a consortium involving INRA, IFN and CITEPA.

Summary of the study

This project produced projections of emissions for the entire LULUCF sector.

Study not available to the public.